By Billy Hammond (Copyright AELS)

January 22, 2020

TV clips of children in underdeveloped countries or those devastated by war or famine often show children with distended abdomens. Others show children who are severely underweight and emaciated yet with no abdominal swelling.

Both sets of children are suffering from malnutrition, but the causes are slightly different.

The children with the distended abdomens are suffering from a disease known as “Kwashiorkor” which is a disease in which their diet is deficient in protein in relation to calories as in a starch dominant diet.

Their symptoms include stunted growth, edema, dermal lesions, loss of hair pigmentation, and decreased plasma albumin. The deposition of fat leads to liver enlargement which gives the appearance of the distended abdomens seen in images.

Marasmus is the result of a deficiency in calories in relation to protein which can arise from a milk dominated diet. Symptoms include arrested growth, extreme muscle wasting, weakness, and anemia. These children are susceptible to frequent infections.

Albumin levels and edema help to distinguish the two diseases.






English novels by Billy Hammond published by AELS



I. Majoh Gakuin and Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools Trilogy

1. Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools

2. Lost Witch (The second book)

3. Fate & Magic (The final book in the trilogy)

II. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire Trilogy

1. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire

2. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Returns

3. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Challenges (The final book in the trilogy)

III. Fantasy fiction set in Japan

1. 21st Century Ninja

2. Regressed

3. Japanese Woman

IV. Fantasy fiction set outside of Japan

1. Dimension Jumpers