By Billy Hammond (Copyright AELS)

December 26, 2019

You often hear people say, “He was in a state of shock when he got the news.” or “I think I’m in shock.” What they mean, of course, is “surprise.”

In the field of medicine, shock has quite a different meaning. The broad definition is when blood and oxygen aren’t reaching the cells that need them to function.

From there, we can think of one of the causes as being not enough volume of blood and fluid in circulation. This is called hypovolemic shock (think of low volume). It can be caused by bleeding (hemorrhagic shock) or by the loss of fluids from things such as diarrhea and vomiting, burns and dehydration.

Another type of hypovolemic shock can be caused by fluid moving around in the body between compartments (distributive shock). In this case the blood and fluids have moved outside the blood vessels. A common cause of this is an allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock). Another would be a systemic infection causing movement outside the vessels (septic shock). Finally, there’s the case where nerve dysfunction leads to a loss in vessel tone that causes blood and fluids to go where they’re ineffective. Damage to the brain or spine would create this situation.

Another cause would be pump failure, where the heart isn’t working properly (cardiogenic shock). This can be caused by the damage or death of heart muscle tissue (think of a heart attack) or by infection, medications or a drug overdose.

Thinking a bit further, if your piping (arteries, veins and so on) can’t contract or dilate, you won’t be able to deliver bloods and fluids properly either. This can happen when something gets stuck in them (obstructive shock).




その状態から考えられる1つの原因は循環中の血液と体液の量不足。これはhypovolemic shock(血液量減少性ショック)と言う。これは出血から起きる( hemorrhagic shock出血性ショック )または下痢・嘔吐、熱傷や脱水から起きる。

体液の体内の別区分への移動によって 他の1種のhypovolemic shock(血液量減少性ショック)も起きることがある(distributive shock: 血液分布異常性ショック)。この場合には血液や体液は血管外に移る。これのよくある原因はアレルギー反応(anaphylactic shock:アナフィラキシー・ショック)。その他の原因は全身感染による血管外への移行(septic shock: 敗血性ショック)。最後に脳や脊髄の障害による神経障害もある。この場合には血管緊張が失われ、血液や体液が無効化の個所に移行される。

他のショックの原因はポンプ故障で、心臓は有効に起動しない(cardiogenic shock:心臓性ショック)。 これは心筋の細胞死または障害(心臓発作)または感染、薬品や薬物過剰摂取によって起きることがある。

最後に身体の管(動脈、静脈など)は収縮・拡張できなければ、血液や体液を細胞に届けることはできない。これは管内に何かが詰まったときに起きる(obstructive shock:血管閉塞性ショック)。


English novels by Billy Hammond published by AELS



I. Majoh Gakuin and Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools Trilogy

1. Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools

2. Lost Witch (The second book)

3. Fate & Magic (The final book in the trilogy)

II. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire Trilogy

1. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire

2. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Returns

3. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Challenges (The final book in the trilogy)

III. Fantasy fiction set in Japan

1. 21st Century Ninja

2. Regressed

3. Japanese Woman

IV. Fantasy fiction set outside of Japan

1. Dimension Jumpers