By Billy Hammond (Copyright AELS)

November 27, 2019

If you like murder mysteries, you’ll notice that many of them feature poisoning using cyanide, which leaves a tell-tale trace of an almond smell to clue the detective on the cause of death.

Chemically, the cyanides are a group of chemicals in which carbon is triple-bonded to nitrogen.

Cyanide’s killing effect comes from its ability to stop the ETC (Electron Transport Chain) in the mitochondria of the cells. It inhibits cytochrome C oxidase (Complex IV) which is needed to create a proton gradient, which stops ATP synthase from generating ATP. Cells that are very dependent on ATP energy such as those in the heart and central nervous system then cannot take up the oxygen in the blood, resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The result is cell death and the death of the individual.

Hydroxycobalamin (vitamin B12) and sodium nitrite are the antidotes for cyanide poisoning.




シアン化物の毒性は細胞内のミトコンドリアのETC(電子伝達鎖)を停止する作用からなる。シアン化物はプロトン勾配生成に必要とするシトクロムc酸化酵素(Complex IV)を抑止し、ATP合成酵素のATP生成を停止する。特にATPエネルギーを必要とする心臓や中枢神経系細胞は血液内の酸素を吸収できなくなり、組織中毒性低酸素状態になる。これにより被害者が死ぬ。



English novels by Billy Hammond published by AELS



I. Majoh Gakuin and Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools Trilogy

1. Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools

2. Lost Witch (The second book)

3. Fate & Magic (The final book in the trilogy)

II. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire Trilogy

1. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire

2. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Returns

3. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Challenges (The final book in the trilogy)

III. Fantasy fiction set in Japan

1. 21st Century Ninja

2. Regressed

3. Japanese Woman

IV. Fantasy fiction set outside of Japan

1. Dimension Jumpers