By Billy Hammond (Copyright AELS)

There are cells in the central nervous system (think brain, brainstem, spinal cord) that provide a good environment and support for the neurons. They are the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells.

Take a look at Neuroglia – Neuron Support Cells (1) for information on the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.


These are the smallest of the neuroglia cells and look like short-spine sea urchins or the konpeito candy sold in Japan.

They are the clean up cells of the nervous system and are activated in the case of injury, trauma or stroke. They swell up, become motile and phagocytic (capable of absorbing and dissolving bacteria and small particles) when they sense injury.

They also release cytokines (proteins that mediate and regulate immunity and inflammation) such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ).

Ependymal Cells

There are three types of ependymal cells: ependymocytes, tanycytes, and choroidal epithelial cells.

The ependymocytes are cube-shaped cells with cilia that form a lining in the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. The movement of their hair-like celia helps move the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF).

Tanycytes are only found on the floor of the third ventricle of the brain. Their processes lie close to blood vessels and neurons.

The choroidal epithelial cells are found in the choroid plexus of the brain and are involved in the production of CSF.


Siegel, Allan; Sapru, Hreday N.. Essential Neuroscience (Point (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)) Kindle Edition.

Le, Tao. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2017. McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.

Gould, Douglas J.. High-Yield™ Neuroanatomy (High-Yield Series) . LWW. Kindle Edition.

神経膠 ニューロン支援細胞(2

Neuroglia(ニューラグリア、神経膠)は中枢神経系(脳・脊髄)内の細胞で、ニューロンに対し、良い環境と支援を提供する細胞だ。その中にはastrocyte(星状膠細胞)、oligodendrocyte (オリゴデンドロサイト(乏突起膠細胞)microglia(小グリア細胞、小膠細胞)及びependymal cell(上衣細胞)がある。

Astrocyte(星状膠細胞)とoligodendrocyte (オリゴデンドロサイト(乏突起膠細胞)について、神経膠 ニューロン支援細胞(1)を見てください。

Microglia (小グリア細胞、小膠細胞)


神経系では 小グリア細胞は『掃除細胞』で、障害、外傷 や脳卒中の場合活性化される。異常を感知した場合、小グリア細胞が膨らみ、運動性細胞に変わり、食細胞作用ももつ。同時にTNF-ɑ のようなサイトカイン(免疫や炎症を仲介するタンパク質)を放出する。

Ependymal Cells(上衣細胞)

3種類のEpendymal Cells上衣細胞)がある:ependymocyte上衣細胞[日本語の訳はepydymal cellと同じみたい]tanycyte(伸長細胞、有尾上衣細胞)及びchoroidal epithelial cell微脈絡叢上皮細胞)



Choroidal epithelial cell微脈絡叢上皮細胞)は脳の脈絡叢に存在し、脳脊髄液産出に関与する。


English books by Billy Hammond published by AELS



I. Majoh Gakuin and Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools Trilogy

1. Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools

2. Lost Witch (The second book)

3. Fate & Magic (The final book in the trilogy)

II. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire Trilogy

1. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire

2. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Returns

3. Brindle – Scryer Extraordinaire – Challenges (The final book in the trilogy)

III. Fantasy fiction set in Japan

1. 21st Century Ninja

2. Regressed

3. Japanese Woman

IV. Fantasy fiction set outside of Japan

1. Dimension Jumpers