By Billy Hammond (Copyright AELS)

There are cells in the central nervous system (think brain, brainstem, spinal cord) that provide a good environment and support for the neurons. They are the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and ependymal cells.


Astrocytes are the largest cells of the neuroglia. They have a star shape with an egg-shaped nucleus.

They provide support for the neurons by creating a barrier that prevents the spread of transmitters from the synapses. They also provide electrical insulation for the neurons. In addition they take up some neurotransmitters like GABA and terminate their action.

Astrocytes can proliferate in a mature brain, which is why they are the cause of most brain tumors.

Astrocytes also take care of extra K+ from local neural activity, by taking it up through membrane channels and dissipating it over a large area.

They repair damaged areas of the brain (astrogliosis) by forming scars.

They contain both glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase, both of which serve as biomarkers for them. They can also be detected with monoclonal antibodies such as A2B5.

Astrocytes are also divided into subgroups: protoplasmic astrocytes, fibrous astrocytes and Muller cells.


These cells are smaller than the astrocytes and have shorter branches, but they are classes as macroglia together with the astrocytes. They are the myelin forming cells of the CNS and myelinate the axons. A single oligodendrocyte can myelinate up to 30 axon segments.


Siegel, Allan; Sapru, Hreday N.. Essential Neuroscience (Point (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins)) Kindle Edition.

Le, Tao. First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2017. McGraw-Hill Education. Kindle Edition.

Gould, Douglas J.. High-Yield™ Neuroanatomy (High-Yield Series) . LWW. Kindle Edition.

神経膠 ニューロン支援細胞(1

Neuroglia(ニューラグリア、神経膠)は中枢神経系(脳・脊髄)内の細胞で、ニューロンに対し、いい環境と支援を提供する細胞だ。その中にはastrocyte(星状膠細胞)、oligodendrocyte (オリゴデンドロサイト(乏突起膠細胞)microglia(小グリア細胞、小膠細胞)及びependymal cell(上衣細胞)がある。






星状膠細胞にはそれらのバイオマーカーとなるGFAPとグルタミン合成酵素が含まれている。 A2B5のようなモノクローナル抗体によって検出もできる。

星状膠細胞は『原形質性星状膠細胞 』・『線維性星状膠細胞』・『ミュラー細胞 』のサブグループにも分けられる。

Oligodendrocyte (オリゴデンドロサイト[乏突起膠細胞])

Oligodendrocyte (オリゴデンドロサイト[乏突起膠細胞])星状膠細胞よりも小さく、ブランチも短いが、星状膠細胞と共に大グリア細胞として分類される。 オリゴデンドロサイトはCNS(中枢神経系)の髄鞘形成細胞で、軸索を髄鞘で護る。1つのオリゴデンドロサイトは30軸索部まで有髄で護ることができる。


Books published by AELS (AELS出版書籍)


原作&翻訳:ビレー ハモンド


Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku – Japanese Witch Schools – English Edition (魔女学院&光塾(英語)

By Billy Hammond

迷える魔女の戦い (魔女学院&光塾シリーズ第2)

原作&翻訳:ビレー ハモンド


Lost Witch (Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku Series Book 2) – English Edition (迷える魔女: 魔女学院&光塾第2弾:英語版)

By Billy Hammond

幸せを運ぶ魔法のチャレンジ 魔女学院&光塾シリーズの第3(Fate & Magic Jp)

原作&翻訳:ビレー ハモンド


“Fate & Magic” Majoh Gakuin & Hikari Juku Series – Japanese Witch Schools Book 3 – English Edition (幸せを運ぶ魔法のチャレンジの英語版)

By Billy Hammond

Regressed 「過去に生きて・・・」

原作&翻訳:ビレー ハモンド


Regressed – English Edition

By Billy Hammond